The electron on the right is following a small circle whose radius is only a quarter of a wavelength.

Then interferences occur with the waves from the proton's positron, which is on the left.

This produces undulations and powerful transverse pulsations.

This phenomenon explains light and its polarization.

Photons do not exist. The light is made purely out of waves.



Matter is made of waves. Electrons are made of spherical standing waves. All forces in Nature can be unified. They are transmitted by electrons as spherical wavelets. So light, which is a force, must be made of waves too, and those waves must be standard traveling waves. Not transverse ones.

If matter is made of waves, there is no alternative.

We can now shed new light on this matter, if you'll pardon the pun. Light's true nature is composite, very different from what was thought. Most often, it is billions of wavelets, emitted by as many electrons. Their basic frequency is constant and much higher than that of the resulting light.

Clearly, Augustin Fresnel was wrong. Polarization of light does not depend on transverse vibrations. It comes from the fact that there are two types of electrons and that they can oscillate like a pendulum in a straight line or in a circular trajectory. Those electrons radiate waves that are alternatively in phase then in phase opposition, and those phases undulate transversally the way the above animated diagram suggests.

The diagrams below show that two emitting electrons or positrons will always produce such ellipsoid and hyperboloid patterns whatever their spin is.

Since electrons behave as light receptors, and because their spin is opposite, they oscillate in an opposite direction. This is a result of the radiation pressure, whose effect is opposite when waves arrive in phase or not. For example +1/2 electrons will all adjust themselves on the black areas shown on the right, while -1/2 electrons will prefer the white ones. Finally, all those receiving electrons will oscillate like pendulums on the same lower frequency.


The phases alternate on concentric ellipsoids and hyperboloids.


Those hyperboloids are especially visible on this animation:

Observe the hyperboloid zones where the wave phase alternates.

This is a simplification. Actually, there are billions of such hyperboloids very close together.

Electrons constantly radiate such waves, but this is not light, though.


 Unmoving electrons: the hyperboloid zones are stable.


In order to produce light, electrons must oscillate.

Finally, the hyperboloid zones undulate like this:

The primary frequency is constant but the light's secondary frequency is that of undulations.

Those undulations are much longer. Their length have been shortened here in order to make them visible. 

Electrons may move in a circular trajectory. Then the undulations expand to 360° and there is no polarization.




Inside air, water, or glass, light waves constantly disturb electrons, which emit some new light. The original waves simply go through any object but their action is cancelled. Light seems to go through any transparent material, but one must realize that it is actually new light.

A substance is transparent because it has a perfectly homogeneous structure. For instance, a crystal is made of regularly spaced atoms. All electrons inside it will react to any incident light wave and produce a new wave according to Huygens' Principle.

Because there are two sorts of electrons, whose spin (phase) is opposite, just one half of them will be slightly pushed by the incident wave, making all of them emit on the same phase. All the wavelets will add themselves for rather long distances.

The diagram below shows that only a 1/4 wavelength displacement along the axis will nevertheless produce a stunning and powerful set of pulses:


Pulses from two electrons oscillating along the axis.

From one electron to another, there is a slight delay which explains refraction.

Color dispersion can be explained by more complex, multi-level crystalline structures.


Most often, visible light is emitted by electrons inside an atom. We already know that they are placed on several atomic shells. However, they may not emit some light only when they move from one shell to another. This will indeed occur, but their position inside a given shell can be disturbed without expelling them from it. They are simply locked inside an area where they can move in a circular trajectory.

The diagram below shows that the quarks inside protons must radiate many interleaved hyperboloid zones, where the energy is weaker. Those zones can capture an electron.


  Hyperboloids, or nearly-cylindrical zones where electrons can rotate.

Such a rotation produces visible light, which is not polarized most of the time.


Moreover, the proton radiates several parallel hyperboloid zones. Their addition produces true hyperbolas on the junction points. Finally, it becomes obvious that the constant and periodic spectral lines, especially the Balmer series, are linked to those junction points.


 Hyperbolic interferences between two gluonic beams, from two orthogonal points of view.

Any of those hyperbolas can capture one electron in accordance with constant periodic distances.


The link with the periodic atomic shells and the Balmer series is obvious:

 The hydrogen spectral lines are well known as the Balmer series.


Thus, and although difficult to believe at first :

1. The light waves do not vibrate transversely.

2. Light is made of composite waves pulsated on a secondary, lower frequency.

3. Photons do not exist.

I have been studying light all my life and I never encountered a situation where photons were evident. Scientists who accepted such an hypothesis were strangely bold.

Light behaves like waves. The quantum effects must be the result of the electron's behavior while emitting or receiving light. This occurs because the threshold for expelling them from their normal position is constant.

In addition, the Compton effect can be explained by light crossing gluonic fields, which are plane standing waves between two electrons. Other effects could also suggest particles, but waves can always explain them too. There is no evidence of particles.

Photons do not exist. This was also Mrs. Caroline H. Thompson's opinion:



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Gabriel LaFreniere,

Bois-des-Filion in Québec.

On the Internet since September 2002. Last update September 26, 2007.