MILLIONS VOLTS - (TT Brown 3,022,430)
As is represented diagrammatically in figure 1, a source 16 of high voltage electrical potential is mounted within the hollow body 10 with its positive and negative terminals connected, respectively, to the forward electrode 11 and the trailing electrode 12, such connections being effected as by means of suitably insulated conductors 17 and 18. Negative charges, either in the form of electrons, negative ions, or negatively charged particles, are given up from the trailing conductor 12 to the jets, either because of the fact that the conductor is heated to a very high temperature by being immersed in the flame jets and so capable of thermionic emission, or due perhaps to the magnitude of the applied potential being sufficient to cause a partial ionization of the medium immediately surrounding the issuing jet, and due undoubtedly in part to the scrubbing action of the jet over the surface of the electrode in the manner analogous to the electrification of bodies by friction as, for example, when an amber rod is rubbed with a silken cloth.
Regardless of how the transfer takes place, it is clear that negative charges are injected into the jets by the trailing electrode 12. These negative charges are swept to the rear with the fluid stream at extremely high velocity and to a very great distance. This phenomenon continues and negative charges are steadily removed from the forward electrode 11 resulting in the electrode 11 acquiring a progressively higher positive charge. This charging of the electrode 11 will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the electrically charged particles escape from the jets and return to the forward electrode 11 AT THE SAME RATE at which negatively charged particles are injected into the jets. It is believed that potential differences between the body and the gas cloud left in the wake of the vehicle by the fluid stream may be as high as fifteen million volts. It will be seen that when this condition obtains, the forward electrode 11 of the mobile vehicle itself corresponds to the positively charged leading conductor of the electrokinetic propulsive device disclosed and described in detail in my application Serial No. 669,830, filed July 3, 1957 [US Patent 2,949,550 of Aug 16, 1960]. The products of combustion or the fluid stream left in the wake of the vehicle correspond to the negatively charged body of the propulsion device disclosed in the above mentioned application [...and patent]. Thus, between the mobile vehicle itself and the gas cloud or fluid stream left in its wake, there is produced a force tending to move the surrounding medium past the mobile vehicle and to the rear of the trailing gas cloud. This force, of course, is accompanied by an equal and opposite reaction which serves to propel the mobile vehicle forward. With such an arrangement, the trailing electrode acts as a source of charged particles and the fluid stream acts through its kinetic energy to stimulate the emission from the trailing electrode. If the stream or jet is a flame jet, then the heat of the jet causes thermionic emission from the electrode in addition to the emission caused by the kinetic energy of the stream.
For these reasons any dielectric stream will produce the desired results. For example, a carbon dioxide generator may serve as the jet source. It is, however, preferred to use a flame jet source such as a burning hydrocarbon for the additional thermionic emission mentioned above [see Rose - Flying Saucer page].
By reason of the large dimensions involved and the extremely high potentials generated, the propulsive force so produced is very large. This is mentioned because while an augmenting thrust will, of course, be established by the issuing flame jets 13 alone, this thrust will be small compared to the electrokinetic thrust developed, the orifice 15 of the flame jets 13 being used primarily for generating the extremely high propulsive potential which is developed by the apparatus…