THE FLYING SAUCER
This document is entitled "A Simplified Explanation of The Application of the Biefeld-Brown Effect* to the Solution of the Problems of Space Navigation", it was published by Mason Rose, Ph.D., President University for Social Research in 1952 - and was written by Bradford Shank a nuclear scientist, formerly of Los Alamos National Laboratory.
[* First published in Science and Invention, August 1929, and Psychic Observer, Vol. XXXVII, No. 1]. Also to be found at the T Townsend Brown family website.
The scientist and layman alike encounter a primary difficulty in understanding the Biefeld-Brown effect and it's relation to the solution of the flying saucer mystery.
A proper interpretation of this theory is prevented because both scientist and layman are conditioned to think in electromagnetic concepts, whereas the Biefeld-Brown effect relates to electrogravitation.
Their lack of awareness is justifiable, however, because the data on electrogravitation, inasmuch as it is a comparatively recent and unpublished development, has limited availability and circulation. Townsend Brown, the discoverer of electrogravitational coupling, is the only known experimental scientist in this new area of scientific development as of this writing. Thus, anyone wanting to understand electrogravitation and its applications to astronautics must dismiss the principles of electromagnetics in order to grasp the essentially different principles of electrogravitation. Electrogravitational effects do not obey the known principles of electromagnetism. Electrogravitation must be understood as an entirely new field of scientific investigation and technical development.
The most efficient method of effecting an understanding of electrogravitation is to review the evolutionary development of electromagnetism.
From the smallest atom to the largest galaxy, the universe operates on three basic forces, namely Electricity, Magnetism and Gravitation. These forces can be represented as follows:
Figure 1 - Three Forces:
Taken separately, these forces are of no real practical use. Electricity by itself is static electricity and therefore functionless. It will make your hair stand on end, but that is about all.
However, when they are used to work in combination with each other, almost endless technical applications come into being. Currently, our total electrical development is based on the coupling of electricity with magnetism, which provides the basis for the countless uses we make of electricity in modern societies.
Faraday conducted the first productive empirical experiment with electromagnetism around 1830, and Maxwell did the basic theoretical work in 1865.
The application of electromagnetism to microscopic and sub-microscopic particles was accomplished by Max Planck's work in quantum physics about 1890; and then in 1905 Einstein came forward with relativity, which dealt with gravitation as applied to celestial bodies and universal mechanics.
It is principally out of the work of these four great scientists that our electrical developments, ranging from the simple lightbulb to the complexities of nuclear physics, have emerged.
In 1923, Dr. Biefeld, Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Dennison University and a former classmate of Einstein in Switzerland, suggested to his protoge, Townsend Brown, certain experiments which led to the discovery of the Biefeld-Brown effect, and ultimately to the electrogravitational energy
spectrum (in actuality, it was Brown who first observed the effect and brought it to the attention of Dr. Biefeld, who suggest further experiments to determine the origin of and enhance the effect - Juniper). Biefeld wondered if an electrical condenser, hung by a thread, would have a tendency to move when it was given a heavy electrical charge. Townsend Brown provided the answer. There is such a tendency.
After 28 years of investigation by Brown into the coupling effect between electricity and gravitation, it was found that for each electromagnetic phenomenon there exists an electrogravitational analogue. This means, from the technical and commercial viewpoint, potentialities for future development and exploitation are as great or greater than the present electrical industry. When one considers that electromagnetism is basic to the telephone, telegraph, radio, television, radar, electric generators and motors, power production and distribution, and is an indispensable adjunct to transportation of all kinds, one can see that the possibility of a parallel, but different development in electrogravitation has almost unlimited prospects.
The initial experiments conducted by Townsend Brown, concerning the behavior of a condenser when charged with electricity, had the characteristic of simplicity which has marked most other great scientific advancements.
The first startling revelation was that if placed in free suspension with the poles horizontal, the condenser, when charged, exhibited a forward thrust toward the positive poles. A reversal of polarity caused a reversal of the direction of thrust. The experiment was set up as follows:
Figure 2 - Biefeld-Brown Effect:
The antigravity effect of vertical thrust is demonstrated by balancing a condenser on a beam balance and then charging it. After charging, if the positive pole is pointed upward, the condenser moves up.
Figure 3 - Balance Experiment:
These two simple experiments demonstrate what is now known as the Biefeld-Brown effect. It is the first and, to the best of our knowledge, the only method of affecting a gravitational field by electrical means. It contains the seeds of control of gravity by man. The intensity of the effects is determined by five factors, which are:
1. The separation of the plates of the condenser, the closer the plates, the greater the effect.
2. The ability of the material between the plates to store the electrical energy in the form of elastic stress. A measure of this ability is called the "K" of the material. The higher the "K," the greater the Biefeld-Brown effect.
3. The area of the plates, the greater the area giving the greater effect.
4. The voltage difference between the plates; more voltage, more effect.
5. The mass of the material between the plates; the greater the mass [atomic mass], the greater the effect.
It is this fifth point which is inexplicable from the electromagnetic viewpoint and which provides the connection with gravitation.
On the basis of further experimental work from 1923 to 1926; Townsend Brown in 1926, described what he called a "space car." This was a revolutionary method of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial flight, presented for experiment while motor propelled planes were yet in a primitive stage.
This engineering feat by Townsend Brown was all the more remarkable when we consider such a machine produces thrust with no moving parts, does not use any aerodynamic principles of flight, and has neither control surfaces, or a propeller.
Townsend Brown had discovered the secret of how the flying saucers fly years before and such objects were reported.
Now the basic differences between electromagnetism and electrogravity have been described and the basic principles of the Biefeld-Brown effect have been outlined, we are finally ready to understand the principles of astronautics or the conquest of space.
The earth creates and is surrounded with a gravitational field which approaches zero as we go far into space. This field presses objects and people to the earth's surface; hence it presses a saucer object to the earth.
However, through the utilization of the Biefeld-Brown effect, the flying saucer can generate an electrogravitational field of its own which modifies the earth's field.
This field acts like a wave, with the negative pole at the top of the wave and the positive pole at the bottom, the saucer travels like a surfboard on the incline of a wave that is kept continuously moving by the saucer's electrogravitational generator.
Since the orientation of the field can be controlled, the saucer can thus travel on its own continuously generated wave in any desired angle or direction of flight.
Since the saucer always moves towards its positive pole, the control of the saucer is accomplished by varying the orientation of the positive charge. Control, therefore, is gained by switching charges rather than by the control surfaces. Since the saucer is traveling on the incline of a continually moving wave which it generates to modify the earth's gravitational field, no mechanical propulsion is necessary.
Figure 4 - Saucer Movement Control:
Once we understand that the horizontal and vertical controls are obtained by shifting the positive pole which turns the field, then we are in a position to extrapolate a finished saucer design.
Figure 5 - Saucer Flight Control:
The saucer's edge would contain a number of conductor segments, and the saucer would turn in any direction simply by shifting the positive and negative charges to appropriate positions along its edge. The vertical thrust would be regulated by varying the charge on top of the saucer, the amount of thrust being regulated by the amount of charge generated.
In all probability, flying saucers do not utilize external controls for direction, nor do they have any visible means of propulsion. Flying saucers travel using the Biefeld-Brown electrogravitational effect, and hence do not utilize any of the standard aerodynamic principles of an airfoil. Flying saucers cannot be understood from the traditional principles of aeronautical engineering; however, the older points of view are useful for critical theoretical analysis and empirical testing.
Before UFO's were ever seen and validly reported, Townsend Brown developed a captive flying saucer - a scale model saucer with a free bearing going around a stationary pole.
Brown did not start with round objects, in fact, the first object that he flew was a triangle, the next a square, then a square with the edges cut off, and finally a round shaped saucer.
Eventually, experiments proved the saucer shape most effective. Changes were made for empirical reasons.
Having solved the problem of horizontal thrust, Townsend Brown developed a profile shape which would be most efficient to navigate the electrogravitational field for maximum vertical thrust. The final profile that he developed was the shape illustrated here:
Figure 6 - Saucer Profile:
The first report of a disc-shaped object in the sky dates back to the sixteenth century. At long intervals during the centuries since then have come other reports. Most of them are undoubtedly unreliable as observations, distorted by telling and retelling. But in these older reports, as well as in the very numerous series which has accumulated since 1947, there is a teasing common thread concerning appearance and behavior which makes any certainties about the unreality of flying saucers very insecure.
One of the great difficulties in substantiation of these reports is that, in both appearances and behavior, these objects seem to be simple scientific impossibilities. Here are some of the reasons advanced by technical men to prove the impossibility of devices such as the reports describe:
1. The reports reveal, in most cases, no method of propulsion which can be understood. There are no propellers in any of the reports. Some of the reports describe a long flame jet trailing behind a cigar shaped object. But this flame is orange-red in color, indicating an inefficient combustion which would make it ineffective as a reaction jet such as propels rockets and jet planes. No other known physical laws seemed capable of explaining the observed motion of the objects.
2. The reports describe a range of speed and acceleration from stationary hovering to speeds greater than present day rockets can deliver, and the changes of rate of motion, the accelerations, are far beyond the capacities of any known man-made vehicles. Flight experts point out that such accelerations would impose impossible stresses on any human or human like occupants. therefore, they say, the reports must be false or erroneous.
3. Many of the reports concern night sightings and describe a glow, usually of blue or violet color, around a periphery of the objects. Physicists have noted that such a glow is characteristic of a very high voltage electrical discharge, but add that this suggests no means of explaining the appearance or behavior of the objects described in the reports.
4. The description of shapes and performance seems to indicate a complete or almost complete disregard of aerodynamic principles. The objects seem not to need the support of air as a plane does, nor to depend on the lift provided by properly designed surfaces moved rapidly through an air medium.
These are weighty arguments PROVIDED THE ASSUMPTIONS BEHIND THEM ARE CORRECT. As I have previously indicated, the observed motion of a condenser has been labeled the Biefeld-Brown effect.
Studying this effect, Brown pointed out in 1923 that this tendency of a charged condenser to move might easily grow into a new and basically different method of propulsion.
By 1926 he had described a "space car" utilizing this new principle.
By 1928 he had built working models of a boat propelled in this manner.
By 1938 he had shown that his specially designed condensers not only moved, but had certain interesting effects on plants and animals.
All of this, while very exciting, is for most of us just a repetition and reinforcement of the rapid scientific development so characteristic of our age. But then came the unexpected Townsend Brown, working in his laboratory, building models and trying endless variations in size, shape and design of his charged condensers, made a flying saucer which flew around a maypole, before flying saucers became a newspaper topic. And the reasons listed above, which led the specialists to reject the reports of observed saucers, PROVED TO BE BOTH EXPLICABLE AND NECESSARY TO THEIR OPERATION under the electrogravitational principle.
Let us look at the four main objectives in a new light:
1. No understood method of propulsion.
2. The second objection concerned the tremendous accelerations which on the basis of previous technology, would subject any animal occupants to unbearable stresses. But, says Brown, the occupants of one of his saucers would feel no stress at all, no matter how sharp the turn or how great the acceleration. This is because the ship and all the occupants and the load are all responding equally to the wavelike distortion of the local gravitational field. In an airplane the propeller pumps air backward and, by reaction, the plane moves forward. The reaction thrust on the propeller is transferred to the frame of the aircraft. This frame then shoves the load and occupants forward CONTRARY TO THEIR NATURAL TENDENCY TO MOVE AT A CONSTANT RATE IN A CONSTANT DIRECTION. But in the saucer no such transfers of thrust from one member to another occurs. The entire assembly moves in unison in response to the locally modified gravitational field. The nearest analogy in our experience is going down in an elevator. When the elevator starts down, it is not necessary for the elevator to shove on our bodies, both elevator and passengers share a gravitational tendency to move down. They do so without any shoving or any stresses between elevator and passengers.
3. Townsend Brown's saucers require a highly charged leading edge - the positive pole. But such a charged pole produces an electrical corona. In the largest models made, this develops a decided bluish-violet glow [seen] easily in the darkness or a dim light. A full scale ship operating on this principle would be expected to produce a spectacular corona effect visible for many miles.
4. The outlines and shape of Brown's saucers were the result of electrogravitational considerations, not the result of wind tunnel tests of aerodynamic designs. For they move, not on the lift of air, but on the lift of a modified gravitational field. In operating flying saucers such aerodynamic considerations would have to be taken into account to reduce drag and friction, but not to produce lift and thrust.
5. And, finally, when Brown turned his attention to improved ways of generating high voltages, the most promising new method involved the use of a flame jet to convey negative charges astern. This flame was relatively inefficient as a generator if it was adjusted for the best combustion of the fuel. But if it was adjusted to an orange-red color, indicating incomplete combustion of fuel, it conveyed the charges very effectively and set up the required negative space charge [as in Brown's patent 3,022,430] behind the ship.
The reasons advanced by the experts to "explain away" the saucer reports, when seen from a new and different viewpoint appear to be the specific reasons why they can operate, on electrogravitational rather than electromagnetic principles.
The next opinion which must be corrected is the idea of overly intensified supersonic vibration. The Townsend Brown experiments indicate that the positive field which is traveling in front of the saucer acts as a buffer wing which starts moving the air out of the way. This immaterial electrogravitational field acts as an entering wedge which softens the supersonic barrier, thus allowing the material leading edge to enter into a softened pressure area. Diagramed, this would be illustrated as shown here:
Figure 7 - Buffer Wing:
It should be noted that in a jet plane or guided missile the extra weight added to create the Biefeld-Brown electrogravitational effect would be compensated for by the added thrust created by the movement of the plane toward the positive field created in front of the leading edge.
As we have previously stated, for every known electromagnetic effect there is an analogous electrogravitational effect but electrogravitational applications and results differ from those of electromagnetic. This presupposes that an entire new electrogravitational industry comparable to the present electromagnetic industry will emerge from the theoretical formulations and empirical experiments of Townsend Brown.