What is an EVO?
An EVO (exotic vacuum object) is just another name in a long line of names for a new electronic effect. In the past, it has been called an EV (Electromagnetic Vortex or Electrum Validum for strong electron), charge cluster (this could be just a piece of dirt with no net charge) and CCT for charge cluster technology.
Whatever it is called, the effect can best be characterized by how it is measured using instruments capable of interpenetration in terms of somewhat similar phenomenon. The nearest class of instruments with useful capabilities is those used for measuring the properties of electrons and ions.
Using these, we will assemble a series of observations characterizing the observable entity properties that are most pertinent to new energy and propulsion uses. Use of contemporary buzzwords like zero point energy, space energy or ether and other areas of mystery will be avoided here as they might falsely bias judgment of the true events being measured.
It will not even be assumed that the entity being interrogated is an assembly of electrons, even though electrons were put in during formation and an equivalent number of electrons were output at the time of dishevelment.
This writing is thus an attempt to analyze the actions and basic characteristics of the entity while being as free as possible of preconceived notions about its structure. This aim is heavily biased toward the entities use instead of its name or theory of operation...
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A Leak from our Universe
A reverse flow of matter, or recharge of our local domain on Earth from the dark domain, is possible through particle bombardment from the sun or from capture of WIMPS as matter supplied from the dark side. We could still benefit from this event if the WIMP captor were to be our sun, which then passed the normal matter on to us as a resupply of leaked matter.
An EVO Clutch and Microphone
An EVO is many useful things in our normal electronic world but its most outstanding property to date is the ability to couple into the basic fabric of space... The EVO has the ability to do this in a highly controllable fashion thus making it a kind of Universal Clutch as it actually clutches the basic fabric of the universe by biasing the medium with a dense, asymmetrical charge distribution. Without the asymmetry, there is no traction and all we see is a group of electrons. By making the medium asymmetric through electrical field control, we are awarded the ability to propel the EVO in any desired direction, carrying along with it whatever is attached to the EVO.
Basic EVO Questions
What I say about EVOs is viewed as the ultimate heretical doctrine by established and entrenched science because my vanguard statement is that many sacrosanct laws of present, single particle physics are baloney when considered from the multi-universe view I advance. For example: neither charge nor mass is fixed in magnitude and energy does not equal mass times the velocity of light squared. In addition, matter, even biological life forms, can be teleported with ease in concealed form at thousands of times the velocity of light. Nuclear transmutation is a trivial act, as many cold fusion workers have already revealed. This is dissent heresy from a normal, existing science point of view.
Black Holes as EVOs
EVOs make both negative and positive charges of matter simply go away by removing the effect called charge and mass! If that is not the essence of a black hole, what is? A laboratory scale EVO is most likely a black hole in every real sense of the term. The size is an entirely different matter and should not be confused with the action produced.
Charge Clusters in Action
New energy transformations have been found using highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, or EVs, having soliton behavior, with electron populations on the order of Avagadro’s number. When interacted with solid material, these charge clusters perform a low-energy phase transformation type of atomic disruption that liquefies the lattice and propels the material to a high velocity without apparent signs of conventional heating. Using an ordinary thermal interpretation, a thermal gradient for bulk material greater than 26,000 degrees C per micrometer would be required to achieve these effects. Evidence will be shown for the EV transiting the solid material, fluidizing it by contributing one extra electron per nucleon for a period considerably longer than the relaxation time, and then imparting momentum to the fluid. Under such conditions, the impact of this fluid on another solid buries a slug of solidified material to a depth of over 20 micrometers. This abnormal behavior introduces the notion of energy gain produced through a low-energy atomic and molecular phase change coupled with high recombination energy release. Evidence will also be introduced for the underlying energy production process stemming from the equivalence of an electron-annihilation energy release based on the manipulation of fractional electronic charge.
Dark Matter Messengers
What It Is: A fanciful sounding mode for communicating information and physical matter is becoming available by using EVOs, or synthetic WIMPs, as a form of information-bearing projectile. These will be capable of rapidly traversing galactic distances and being directed with the selectivity afforded only projectiles. For all intent and purposes, it is a homemade, miniature black hole that has temporarily “swallowed” ordinary matter as information and that will regurgitate it later upon proper association with another of its kind. This is definitely teleportation but it is not yet telekinesis of the psychic kind. It is an extremely selective process but one needed when transferring information throughout the very noisy
Universe and it is certainly a great improvement over electromagnetic messaging methods.
With the advent of a slight addition to EVO (Exotic Vacuum Object) technology, the basis of which can be reviewed at: www.svn.net/krscfs/, a form of miniature disruptor device capable of both initiation of munitions and destruction of electronic communication and control devices becomes available. Such an event would seriously undermine the capability of governments to control their populace by the form of force presently used. The use of force to forbid the manufacture and distribution of disruptors is a logical first step for governments to take, but one without long-term effectiveness due to the simplicity of creating and distributing disruptors.
EVO Life Cycle
A persistent aspect of EVO technology not strongly emphasized is their ability to reduce the effect of charge and mass on what is normally thought of as a group of electrons. When viewed in a broader sense, the effect being described could be something entirely different arising from the close association of so many electrons without positive charge compensation. Basically, this association is so unusual and unstudied that it might be appropriate to signify that a new class of particle has formed with entirely different properties from those normally studied. This note will emphasize that tack and discuss anomalous EVO behavior.
EVO Oscillation - The Friendly Enemy
The Basis of Gain: EVO gain shows itself in the form of a high, thrusting force output for a meager electrical input control power. Normally, the thrust is developed against condensed material that is fluidized by EVO passage and is registered as an easily measured and potentially useful momentum imparted to the material. In this case, energy must be regained thermally from the fluid mass transported, implying a disruption to the initial shape of the structure used, leading to a short apparatus lifetime.
EVO Propulsion Basis 2
A heretofore-undocumented form of very powerful and efficient propulsion is displayed indicating a connection has been
made to something outside our usual sensory system.
EVOs and the Hutchison Effect
All Listed Technologies Utilize EVOs as Base Technology / Thermal Output Capability Only by Destruction / Electrical Output Without Device Destruction / Notion of Proper Component Design as Gain Basis / With Proper Design, Hutchison Effect Could Function as Claimed at The Low Power Actually Used / THE ENERGETICS OF THESE TECHNOLOGIES ALL HAVE A COMMON BASIS IN ELECTRON CLUSTERING.
EVOs and the Strange Particles of L.R. Urutskoev
Radiation Characteristics: Specifically, Urutskoev stated, “Using photonuclear detectors (X-ray films and nuclear emulsions) located at distances of up to 2 m from the setup, we detected traces of a “strange” radiation. The traces were clearly not of the acceleration origin, because they could be detected over a period of 24 h using a detector placed near the foil remainder.” Further, he states, “Rather surprising is the mere fact of recording radiation at the distance of 1~2 m from the setup. Indeed, the radiation had to emerge from the setup, pass through the air and penetrate two layers of black paper wrapped around the detectors. It is clear that a charged particle would not travel this distance. The other remarkable fact is that the particle energy estimated from the blackening area under the assumption of Coulomb interaction equals E ~700 MeV.” / The Effect is All Around Us: Further, he elaborates that this strange radiation has also been found to originate from commercial power equipment when it is in an “emergency situation” or near breakdown. Urutskoev states, “Recently, we have found one more fact, not very important from the theoretical standpoint, but very significant for our research group from the financial standpoint. We were able to detect the “strange” radiation on industrial electrical equipment at emergency situation. The traces detected were identical to those obtained in the laboratory. Power engineers believe that these results would be helpful in elucidating the reason for failure of commercial facilities. However, currently the conclusion is that we detect something but there are still more questions than answers.”
EVOs as WIMPs
EVOs appear as clusters of electrons capable of suppressing their expressed charge and mass by a measured factor of more than 1 billion below that of the same number of individual electrons. Even in their presently undeveloped state, they could qualify for what is known in astronomy as WIMPs or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and thought by some to be one source of Dark Matter. Down to the lowest level of expressed charge measured thus far, the black or non-interactive state of EVOs can be refreshed to the white level of expressed charge and mass by application of short-term pulses of electric field. This behavior raises the hope of “awakening” the black state of an EVO from an even deeper stage of charge and mass suppression, perhaps obtained naturally as a WIMP by a long residence in the solitude of space.
Electric Charge Non-Conversation
An EVO structure, whether in the white or black state, provides an easily measured and unambiguous testimony to the fact that electric charge is not conserved under the conditions of space modification provided by the EVO. Many papers by the author, available for download from: http://www.svn.net/krscfs/, show the means for making these measurements while the EVO state is in control of electron containment. The subject of charge conservation is an old one where many views have been used for its theoretical analysis, but for the sake of brevity, only one recent reference will be cited here...
Electric Gun Effects
This note covers the natural progression of the EVO gun as a device for the reduction of standard weapon effectiveness, by exploding their ammunition and destruction of electronic controls, to the next expected stage of being an EVO gun as a replacement weapon used against humans. The sequence from ballistic projectile to electric projectile seems to fit into the natural scheme of things. There will be many frustrating attempts at removing this new gun from the reach of individuals, and these will certainly be practiced with regularity, but in the end, still unforeseen forces will bring us to the ultimate conclusion, as it severely upsets the balances acquired thus far in our slow process of becoming civilized.
Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons-Appendix 1
In order to make the effect more obvious, I caused streamers to run in long glass tubes by exciting them with short bursts of RF at a frequency of between 1.7 and 5 MHz. About 10 cycles of RF was the minimum that I could conveniently generate. Under the conditions that produced small, thin streamers, these streamers would run for a distance of 2 inches or so on the inside of the 3 mm glass tube without turning. Then they would suddenly deflect a small angle and then run straight again. By looking at the deflection point it could be seen that the deflection was caused by something on the surface. I put small grains of various substances on the surface to see what the effect preferred; silica sand was the winner. / Someday we will get a control on the effect and it may prove to be a laser-like process generating the beam that the EV then rides upon. If such guidance does become practical, there is a good chance for focusing enormous energy density from multiple sources that are a lot easier to make than conventional lasers.
Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons
A new ElectroMagnetic Pulse (EMP) technology is proposed based on the rapid decomposition, in lightning-like fashion, of cubic centimeter quantities of fluidized electrons yielding both high-energy particles and high intensity electromagnetic fields capable of deep penetration, massive disruption of electronic systems and having a long range, low lethality electric stun gun effect of high accuracy. A simple deployment method is proposed using ballistics by incorporating fluidized electrons into rounds of ammunition ranging from .22 caliber to 20 mm. The possibility of a more sophisticated
guidance means employing a beam of light is also introduced.
An apparatus is proposed for the condensation of electrons to a containable fluid state. This miniature apparatus consists of an ion pumped vacuum system, a split anode magnetron and a quadrupole electron trap fitted with suitable electron injectors, in the form of EVO generators, and numerous ways for analyzing the effluent captured in the trap. The apparatus design emphasizes simplicity and uses only minimal hand tools for construction. The cost of the easily found construction materials required is in the range of a few hundred dollars.
There is a fascinating new realm of physical effects not covered by present-day single particle physics description, but still very much a part of the world we live in. These effects herald some forthcoming events greater in extent than those found in the single electron world we are most aware of. This domain is the multiple electron universe where the effects of electron ensembles dominate all others.
Elements of Support for New Technology
A very personal and biased view of the required elements for efficient financial support of new technology
is presented here, as summarized from the authors’ extensive experience in exploratory research. The
present quest for a new thrust into alternative energy generation methods prompts this note that is designed
to diminish the need for a standard business proposal writing in such an inherently foggy area.
With my presently held view, I see no problem whatsoever in easily extracting all of the energy mankind needs from our immediate environs. It is not an involved problem at all—except of the behavioral characteristics of man himself who
seems more prone to moan about his plight and engage in the minutia of endless circles instead of pressing onward. / If you consider electronic charges, clustered in the form of an EVO, as an entity that can be deformed into a slightly new state of existence by the application of a small bias field applied to it, then the forces of gravity could possibly be utilized in such a way as to forcibly propel the structure in whichever way the bias field indicates. This thrusting effect can be likened to space warping and pronounced to be a form of propulsion.
Energy Conversion from The Exotic Vacuum Revised
A connection is shown between electron clusters, or EVs, and energy conversion processes yielding thermal energy in excess of the input energy used to form the electron cluster. This energy conversion process is traced to all known forms of cold fusion claims for over-unity or excess energy production. A theory of like charge binding as well as highly effective nuclear acceleration using the charge cluster is presented based on local gravity coupling arising from manipulation of the Exotic Vacuum.
I have delayed for a long time before starting into fluidized electrons knowing it would quickly lead to a potentially destructive class of device. The paper, “Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons” is now out and is perhaps a fiducial point for this new era of troublesome devices. In the beginning, they look like simple tools to “protect our boys from bad old roadside bombs.” In the end, they will likely become the social leveler or equalizer even more likely to succeed than that of Samuel Colt. / The most salient feature of this newfound ally or foe is that it does not necessarily kill. It is fundamentally a stunning effect against biological species that could be used in a way to minimize harm done to those inflicted with it. If desired, it becomes a tool of control by whoever is the inflictor as it is the pinnacle of
The author does not advocate joining the explorer with institutions. Even though this union would initially provide
funding for advanced exploration, it would likely become an insidious process for removing the freedom to roam into uncharted and unexplored areas. Definition of an Explorer - An Explorer is the human tip of an arrow-like probe into the future where no teachers have gone before. They say explorers are easily recognized as one rides along the frontier in a comfortable Calistoga wagon. Explorers are the ones beside the trail whose face is in the mud and have an arrow in the back. That illusion is not too far from the truth as they are frequently attacked while crossing treacherous territory all alone. For the scientific explorer, attacks most often come from the most benign looking sources—academic institutions. Explorers must be natural, self-motivated leaders and possibly those that cannot be taught, as they must learn new things for themselves instead of being taught. This characteristic alone is basis enough for an attack from the academic camp as it demonstrates nonconformity, an incorrigible act.
ICCF-10 Low Voltage Nuclear Transmutation
Project Goals - 1.TO SHOW NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION / USING EVs OPERATING AT LOW VOLTAGE / 2.TO PRESENT DATA IN MASS SPECTROMETRIC FORM / 3.TO DEFINE THE TRANSMUTATION PATHWAY / 4. TO PROVIDE A VERY LOW-COST MASS SPECTROMETER DESIGN FOR EASY CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION BY ANYONE HAVING INTERMEDIATE SKILLS
KS Aircraft and Engines
A folder of various reports dealing with Ken Shoulders' aviation projects.
KS Home and Shop
Selected photos of Ken Shoulders' home, lab and equipment.
Large Scale Propulsion using EVOs
A propulsion method based on the use of Exotic Vacuum Objects is proposed that is potentially capable of passive and controlled lifting of many tons of material against the gravitational field of the Earth per ounce of propulsion apparatus used. The underlying technology, the containment of electrons in fluid form, is also the root process for the very economical generation of electrical power.
Mass Rectification as propulsion
Power Point presentation - This presentation has a dual purpose. One of these is to augment previous, thinly described claims made by Ken Shoulders on a method of producing inertial propulsion, not requiring mass to be thrown overboard, for a variety of uses including superluminal propulsion for space flight. The second aim is to show the incredibly slim margin of initial information available to the researcher for making decisions on exploration in Scientific Frontier work. In this second topic, there is intent to point out that not everyone is acclimatized to such a rarefied environment and that they should consider occupying another sphere of influence, whether their specialty is either research or funding.
Microscopic Radiological Treatment using EVOs
A non-invasive radiological treatment and analysis method having characteristic dimensions in the 10-micrometer range is proposed. The method is based on the use of EVOs swept in a 3 dimensional array by both angular deflection and timed excitation to cause local disintegration without disturbing material previously transited. This disintegration gives rise to highly energetic electron emission for treatment and diagnostics as well as a wideband electromagnetic emission used as a location marker. Data is made available on known guidance and trigger variables and limitations as well as
errors found in measurements made in several nuclear energy assessment methods.
Many of the observations of EV phenomena are totally without explanation. It would seem that EVs live in an entirely different and bizarre world compared to ours. I have written about many of these observations over a long period of time in a scattered fashion using various interpretations but this writing will differ in that a single explanation will be used as the root cause for all such citations. In an attempt to draw together these observations under one roof of explanation, the cause for them will be focused on a single basic reason even knowing this can lead to a large error in interpretation. The one basis to be used here for EV behavior is that the EV is able to transition between various values or levels of space permittivity in the space it occupies. This capability is caused by the EVs large, uncompensated charge density, which is said to modify the permittivity of space. Nothing elase I know of has such a capability. With this behavior, the EV stands alone among all other entities in our known sphere of influence.
Projectiles from the Dark Side
Visualization of homemade WIMPs or Weakly Interactive Massive Particles, a form of Dark Matter, has been made possible through the work of Shoulders, Hutchison and Podkletnov. These entities are shown to be composed of EVOs, reordered to a
black or invisible state through cancellation of their expressed charge and mass. Their utilization portends many new aspects of technology involving penetration and interrogation of previously denied regions of material as well as detailed exploration at great distances due to their particle probe nature thus obviating the need for inverse square laws of propagation. An even greater area of potential application lies in morphing these electronic entities into replicas of complex, organic structures.
Propulsion Using Zero Point Quantum Pressure
Experimental observations indicate the availability of a new form of propulsion based on zero point quantum pressure. The Exotic Vacuum Objects, EVOs, being observed are mesoscopic, self-organized electron clusters having over 100 billion electrons, and although partially directed by electromagnetic fields, primary thrust and control is likely derived from warping of space-time by controlled, zero point quantum field distribution over the spatially extended entity.
Superliminal Particle Measurements
The primary goal of this writing is to introduce the notion of how easy it is for particles to exceed the velocity of
light, as long as some special circumstances can be tolerated, such as, they are not in our world anymore. Living
with that, the realm of superluminal particles is no longer the exclusive domain of atom smashers and huge machinery as the EVO takes you into that realm every time you make a spark to the doorknob. In fact, miniature Plasma Focus machines have been made and tested on this program that have shown the essential role of EVOs in large PF machines capable of enormous, real-world particle acceleration. The notion will be briefly introduced that it is the characteristic of EVO structures that are responsible for anomalous electron acceleration in almost all walks of life. A secondary goal is to introduce the reader to the ingenious EVO behavior capable of initiating an entirely new self-organizing realm of construction using nothing but electrons for construction material. The binding energies of these new structures far exceed those of atomic and molecular bonds leading to higher strength, higher mobility and longer life structures.
Scientific or Technical Belief
Goethe said, “You only see what you know.” This is a most apparent truth in scientific and technical frontier work where an explorer does not have the time to acquire the backing of others with which to build a validated belief by waiting for a consensus. Under these conditions, he can easily look straight at a true finding and not recognize it... Many times over, the author has encountered the Goethe effect of only seeing what he already knows. Over the years, internal processes have been worked out whereby less and less is missed by this flaw in the author’s own behavior. Yet, in the intervening years, I have also become acutely aware of the near impossibility of communicating truly new technical findings to many. It is as if the Goethe effect had a secondary equivalent existing between individuals, which renders recognition of many newly found technical statements virtually transparent to the intended recipient. To make matters worse, the more the receptor is supposed to know about a particular sector of science, the less they seem able to accept new concepts within or near that
arena. To wit: when a trained physicist is told that an EVO has a measured variable charge and mass, there is almost complete cutoff of communication as if a defense mechanism of the older, more familiar philosophy comes into play. This is a dangerously negative effect greatly diminishing human capability.
Shielding from the Inevitable
I can imagine nothing so inevitable as the use of electric, EVO type projectile guns, as described by the author in 'Electric Gun Effects.' These are closely tied to the development of EVO based energy sources and there is nothing more ubiquitous than EVOs in future energy and propulsion systems. The author, in a poster paper entitled 'EVOs and Hutchison Effect,' published the beginnings of this trace and made the data available on the web for download. The basic statement made is that by the time exotic electrical energy generation capability is developed, so will electric guns be available. However, anyone contemplating being in this new form of gun business would also be well advised to to into the shielding business very quickly.
Short Range Electron Attractive Force
Whatever the effect is that fosters this electron clustering action, it behaves like an unseen substance that enshrouds electron groups, partly masking their charge. It is a short-range force resembling a positive charge negating the effect of repulsive electronic charge and can further be defined as a near-field effect that seems to be an innate property of the electron occurring at the time of its creation. This local action is reminiscent of the induction field in electromagnetic theory. This attractive force is a property of the individual electron and not a large group effect, as it extends down in size to electron pairs as is seen in the electron accretion method of forming EVOs, described early on by Shoulders in an issued patent and the references cited above.
Simple Velocity Increases: There are many physical measurements on incidental velocity or energy increases in very simple EVO-matter systems. This is primarily seen in EVO boring operations through matter whereby the matter is propelled to the same velocity of the EVO by a form of temporary encapsulation. This velocity increase for nucleons is the primary cause for cold fusion energy gain effects and the nuclear transmutation seen in by-products of the reactions. As has been shown in previous papers by the author, this transmutation takes place at far lower voltages than conventional, single particle
Teleportation Using EVOs
Definition: In the use of the word Teleportation, there is no intention of invoking anomalous phenomena when just plain experimental physics will do a better job of explaining the events measured. Neither does the author intend to invoke one of the standard dictionary descriptions as, “The movement of objects or elementary particles from one place to another, more or less instantaneously, without traveling through space.” The method to be discussed here uses both time and space in a very normal way. The description of the method used in this writing will also be done without the notions becoming entangled in the usual quantum physics entanglement world. The method being described is straightforward transportation using the ability of EVOs to effectively encapsulate nucleons into their structure and transport them through physical barriers by a gross reduction of the overall expressed charge.
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
Electron clusters, or EVOs, are shown to be ideal candidates for electrical power generation using easily available methods for manipulation of electronic charge. The work to be done is described as manipulation of the exotic vacuum in a way that takes advantage of the ability to move the EVO against an electrical load using only a fraction of the input power usually used, resulting in an energy gain. However, the high intensity of the process and ease of applying it to mischievous ends portend future difficulties with its use.
Transmission of EVOs through Metal
High-density and highly organized clusters of electronic charge, or EVOs, are shown to transit through metal with relative ease compared to that of single electrons. Upon reaching an interface between metal and vacuum, the charges exit the metal somewhat disheveled as clusters and propagate through vacuum as both free electrons and clusters. An EVO injection velocity of a few hundred volts easily penetrates 1 millimeter of aluminum. Although contrary to established electron penetration theory, lower injection velocities produce greater EVO mobility and lifetime within the metal target. The configuration used provides a cold, intense electron emission source without concern for either work function or geometry of the cathode.
UFOs and EVOs
Background: This writing is an unexpected event for the author as he is not a UFO buff but has observed many correlations between the reported behavior of UFOs, as seen by others, and EVO behavior seen personally in the laboratory. The reporting here is tardy in that the author has never had a need to make such a comparison, however, due to a recent association with a group seeking to construct a UFO type of vehicle, it is apropos to document some of the correlations. In this note, attempts will be made to reconcile the two sets of observations and see what the outcome is, knowing that there can be no definitive treatise at this time and that only some shallow inferences can be drawn.
What's an Evo?
They Hang Together: In order to array adequate quantities of this specialized electronic substance for the purpose of propelling large quantities of material and for generation of high powered electrical and light sources, it is necessary for the entities to form into these large structures without the adverse effects of space charge repulsion. They do this admirably as can be seen from photos of witness plates that caught them in flight and recorded their binding arrangement just before capture. Examples of this can be seen in the paper entitled, “Permittivity Transitions”, by Ken Shoulders, also available for download from the web.
What is the Universe Made of?
Ordinary matter made from real on-mass-shell lepto-quark fermions and gauge force bosons only accounts for approximately 4% of all the large-scale stuff of our universe, which may be one of a infinity of parallel universes in hyperspace that we call “Super Cosmos.” I propose that the remaining 96% of our universe consists of two forms of partially coherent exotic vacuum dominated by a condensate of bound virtual electron-positron pairs. Einstein’s gravity emerges from the variations in the macro-quantum coherent phase field of the condensate. This condensate is the inflation field in the large-scale cosmological limit. Both dark energy and dark matter are simply residual total zero point energy densities that emerge from the vacuum condensate’s intensity variations. Approximately 73% is anti-gravitating zero point “dark energy” density with equal and opposite negative pressure that is causing our universe to accelerate in its expansion rate. The remaining gravitating 23%, called “dark matter,” is also zero point energy density with equal and opposite positive pressure found concentrated in large-scale structures like the galactic halo that prevents our solar system from escaping into inter-galactic space.
When confronted daily with the ability of an EVO to reduce both expressed charge and mass and also faced with the incessant chant or chorus of, E = mc , one must ask the question of which mass should we be concerned with as it slides over a range of at least several billion. The answer implied is that we must use one and only one single particle to accurately apply the law. Still, considering the incredible profusion of the effect of charge clustering, we should know how to cover the
questions this effect raises, as the energy laws are supposedly too fundamental to lightly toss them about.
Abstract -- Deuterium loaded palladium foils, produced by both electrolytic and ultrasonic processing, have been micro-analyzed for nuclear reactions. The characteristic strike marks of charge clusters, known as EVs, have been found to occur concurrently with nuclear reactions in micrometer-sized areas. In the electrolytic case, the reaction is attributed to charge clusters generated from mechanical energy, first stored and then suddenly released, from a brittle metal lattice through the mechanism of fracto-emission of electrons. For the acoustic case, EVs are generated by charge separation in a collapsing bubble. When areas previously free of low energy nuclear reactions are bombarded in either vacuum or air by externally generated charge clusters, nuclear reactions are produced at the bombardment site. Charge clusters are considered to function as a collective accelerator capable of injecting a large group of nuclei into a target with sufficient energy density to promote the nuclear cluster reactions observed.