PHILADELPHIA EXPERIMENT - (and TT Brown circa. 1952-1958)
"Theoretically speaking, Brown attempted to explain his results in terms of Unified Field Physics. The point of departure between Brown and most orthodox science is that Brown firmly believed in the existence of an observable coupling effect between gravity and electricity and that this coupling effect is precisely what is being demonstrated by his devices. In other words, he contends that the [Biefeld-Brown] effect not only represents a proved and demonstrable link between electricity and gravitation, but represents one which can actually be harnessed and utilized for propulsion purposes both within and outside of the earth's atmosphere :. The similarities of all of this to the concepts reportedly utilized in the Philadelphia Experiment project are readily apparent.
A 'DIELECTRIC' is defined as a material which has the unique ability of absorbing electrical energy and 'charge' without ordinarily passing this energy on to neighbouring materials. Some dielectrics are able to absorb enormous quantities of electrical energy (also referred to as 'ELECTRIC STRESS') without discharging, provided that the energy is fed into the dielectric slowly and at low potential. Still others can be charged and discharged at extremely high potential at a rate of several thousand times each second. Townsend Brown concerned himself principally with this latter type. Using just such a dielectric, Brown constructed disc-shaped (or saucer-shaped) condensers, and, by applying various amounts of high-voltage direct current, witnessed the [Biefeld-Brown ² ] effect in action. With the proper construction and electrical potential (in the kilovolt range) the disc-shaped 'airfoils' were made to fly under their own power, emitting a slight hum and a bluish electrical glow as they did so. More scientifically, perhaps, this process of 'flight' might best be described as 'motion under the influence of interaction between electrical and gravitational fields in the direction of the positive electrode'.
In 1953, Brown succeeded in demonstrating in a laboratory setting the flight of disc-shaped airfoils 2 feet in diameter around a 20-foot-diameter circular course. The process involved tethering these saucer-shaped craft to a central pole by means of a wire through which the necessary direct-current potential was supplied at a rate of 50,000 volts with continuous input of 50 watts. The test produced an observable top speed of an amazing 17 feet per second (about 12 miles per hour).
Working with almost superhuman determination and at great cost to his personal finances, Brown soon succeeded in surpassing even this accomplishment. At his next display, he exhibited a set of discs 3 feet across flying a 50-foot-diameter course with results so spectacular that they were immediately classified. Even so, most of the scientists who witnessed the demonstrations remained sceptical and generally tended to attribute Brown's motive force to what they called an 'electrical wind' - this in spite of the fact that it would have required a veritable 'ELECTRIC HURRICANE' to produce the lift potential observed ! Nonetheless, pitifully few ³ gave any credence whatsoever to ideas that the [Biefeld-Brown] effect might represent anything at all new to the world of physics. Government funding was sought to enable the work to continue, but in 1955, realizing that the money would not be forthcoming, a disgruntled Brown went to Europe in hopes that perhaps he might be able to generate a little more enthusiasm there.
Although demonstrations were given first in England, it was on the Continent, under the auspices of a French corporation, La Societe Nationale de Construction Aeronautique Sud Ouest (SNCASO), that things really began to look promising. During a set of tests performed confidentially within the company's research laboratory, Brown succeeded in flying some of his discs in a high vacuum with amazing results. Brown was ecstatic, for not only had he succeeded in proving that his discs flew more efficiently without air, but he had also shown that the speed and efficiency of his craft could be increased by providing greater voltage to the dielectric plates.
[Taken from "The Philadelphia Experiment" - by Charles Berlitz (1980) chapter 10 (p/back p138-151]
Note: Brown now undertook a whole new series of experiments designed to determine the exact nature of this new "force’ he had discovered, and after much effort he finally succeeded in developing a device which he optimistically chose to call a "gravitator’. This initial invention was a very crude structure that looked like nothing more than a Bakelite case (see British patent 300,311 fig.8) some 12 inches long and 4 inches square; but when placed on a scale and connected with a 100 kilovolt power source the apparatus proceeded to either gain or lose about one percent of its weight, depending on the polarity used.
Note² I have nowhere found any scientific reference to such a named effect, although Brown (in his Early Laboratory Reports) mentions that it was Dr Paul A. Biefeld, the Director of the Swazey Observatory at Denison Univ. Granville, Ohio (and close friend and classmate of Einstein in Zurich), who in the 1920s 'planted the seed' for this avenue of Brown's ingenuity. (For more information see the TT Brown family website).
I have, however, found a reference to a Le Chatelier-Brown principle, which describes an electrokinetic phenomenon likely to have come from TT Brown's work: if motion occurs under the influence of an electric field, then an electric field must be formed by motion (in the presence of an electrokinetic potential). (Taken from "Principles of Electrochemistry" (2nd ed) by Jiri Koryta et al (1993) p243)
Note³ When an idea is good its sponsored and developed, when an idea is too good its classified and suppressed. Nice One !.. But Col. Philip J. Corso says it all in his book "The Day After Roswell" (1997) when he says, "If the magnetic field theory experiments carried out by engineers and electrical energy pioneers Paul Biefeld and Townsend Brown in the 1920s at the California Institute for Advanced Studies were accurately reported - and the U.S. military as well as scientific record keepers at Hoover's young Bureau of Investigation kept very close tabs on what these engineers were doing - then the technological theory for antigravity flight existed before World War II." (h/back p110/111)(p/back p120).