UFO Propagation - by Paul E Potter
These aerodiscs are composed of three parts; top half interior, top half metallic shell (which acts as both a positive electrode and a capacitor), and the bottom half (which is a very effective asymmetric generator that propagates electromagnetic energy)(see fig.2).
Aircraft such as those described by Bob Lazar and other experiencers will also be mentioned in a separate page (see Electrokinetic UFO page).
In the hollow toroid an electrolytic fluid containing metallic particles is propelled, inside its insulating walls, in a clockwise rotation so as to induce extremely high voltage electrostatic charges (see fig.3). This is by interface charge separation, laminar charge separation, and triboelectric charging (of the different types of conducting and dielectric substances) within the fluid as it is moved (see note 1).
As the high intensity charges build up the more conductive metallic suspensoids in the insulating fluid move toward the inside of the sharp-pointed circumferential edges (by dielectrophoretic motion to where the field intensity in the liquid is at its highest) (see note 2) (also see Non-uniform Electric Fields page).
The fluid's composition should be such that it will create a polarized electric field; is insulating (so as to prevent current leakage between electric poles), and that it creates a magnetic field perpendicular to the flow of the fluid.
Movement of the liquid can be produced in several ways; one of which involves a TT Brown concept using a simple rod as one electrode submerged in the liquid surrounded by a hollow conical electrode, and using the reaction of the fluid in the resultant non-uniform electric field (see his US patents 3,267,860 and 3,196,296). Present research into the electro-kinetic effects produced when an insulating fluid is subjected to an electric field is called electrohydrodynamics, and as an effect has been around a long time; indeed, Michael Faraday made note of it as a ‘violent motion’ back in the 1830's.
Set up within and around the toroid is a reaction known as the Lorentz Force which intrinsically governs how the accumulating charges and magnetic field lines interact with each other (see figs.4 & 4a). Because of this interaction of forces the electric charges generated by the movement of the fluid inside the insulated structure polarize, and one pole (negative) will situate itself about the top half of the toroid, concentrating mainly inside the top inner edge and inside the top outer edge (see Electrolytic Flow page). The other polarity of electric charge (positive) will concentrate itself inside the sharp-pointed lower inner edge of the toroid (or arced-toroid see note 3a). All three edges, of course, denote the whole of their circumferences (which, for a forty foot diameter toroid, is a large capacity).
For the toroid and the upper shell of the ufo some metals used in their construction are similar to the metals found on earth, but the structuring process that the metals have gone through is wholly unconventional and involves some sort of electrical orientation of its molecules to enhance a 'directional' conductivity. The late Colonel Philip J. Corso (in his book "The Day After Roswell") alluded to US Army R&D research into the ET Tech of molecular alignment of metallic alloys. As did the scientific lab tests performed on the Roswell metals delivered to Art Bell (who used to host the US radio talk show Dreamland) in that they have 60 times more pos ion content ("Glimpses of Other Realities - Vol 2" Linda M. Howe p19) (see note 3).
While electric charges cannot be conducted from the charge-accumulating fluid directly through the toroid walls and edges there will be a capacitive effect which will accumulate charges of an opposite polarity, on the outside surfaces which will correspond to the inner ones in intensity and location. This "diffuse layer’, as its called, of electric charge, occurs most effectively when the liquid is moving, and the faster the liquid moves the more pronounced will be the separation effect of its electric ions from the ions in the differently moving diffuse layer outside (see note 4).
In this respect the charges that accumulate outside in the space around the lower INNER edge of the toroid in its diffuse layer, that encircles the base disc assembly, would be NEGATIVE. And the charges accumulating around the outside of the whole of the OUTER circumference of the toroid would be POSITIVE. The result being much the same as dipolar electrodes - building up between them electrostatic field lines and a potential magnetic field around those lines (see note 5).
Inside the craft, over the top horizontal plane of the toroid, which also forms the lower face of the radial planar guide, the induced electrical charges react with the toroid's magnetic field so as to form a horizontally rotating field of polarized (positive) ions. This revolving positive field reacts with the normal air outside the craft to initiate an inflowing of polarized and neutrally charged air which, as soon as it passes through the craft's circumferential duct and over the toroid's electrically-charged outer edge, becomes positively ionized from the effect of sharp-edge ionization (see figs.6 & 7). Also, it should be noted, that as the inflowing air passes through the duct its specially designed curved surface acts as a constrictor to speed up the air flow (as per aerofoil dynamics) – thereby creating a low-pressure area inside the duct. As will be seen below this is but one of various mechanisms to create a low pressure area so as to pull large amounts of air into the center.
This increase in the circumferential duct's peripheral potential correspondingly increases the oppositely-charged potential of the fluid on the inside of the toroid (by way of the capacitive effect).
As can be seen from the illustrations (see figs.6 & 7) the top surface of the radial planar guide is also the base and floor (or main deck) of the upper "cperations’ section of the craft, and would be made of laminated metal that shields the upper section from the electrostatic fields (by Faraday Effect) and to some degree the electromagnetic fields generated by the toroid below.
When the magnetic fields begin to resonate the flux lines will create electrical eddy currents over the under-face of the floor surface, so that a skin of charged particles will circulate around the surface (in conjunction with the other circulating fields). The base can be capacitively coupled (or directly coupled) to the upper outside dome-shell of the craft so as to enable the metallic dome to acquire an outside positive charge (see fig.5). The dome itself can be made to store a tremendous amount of electrical energy, over it's whole surface area, if it is structured as a capacitor (ie laminated with very thin layers of insulating/dielectric material – the thinner the more enhanced will be the capacitive effect – in between various layers of conducting materials) (see note 6).
The central rotating assembly is made up of four bi-polar sphere-sets held equally spaced in a metallic plate or disc. The disc is formed in such a way as to fit inside the perimeter of the inner lower edge of the toroid, so as to be able to rotate freely with the sphere-sets, but to also form an electrostatic coupling (and when appropriate an electrokinetic coupling - see fig.11) with the charges on the lower edge of the toroid. This base disc also has a small diameter emission hole at its center.
The small and large spheres are specifically constructed so as to accumulate large amounts of electric energy (see fig.8). They can, for this purpose, be made from dielectric* glass doped with paramagnetic particles (or diamagnetic quartz structured with different mass particles or sections). These are spherical and smooth-surfaced to prevent stray leakage of their accumulated charges (the ratio of size of which corresponds to the ratio of charges accumulated throughout the craft – as will be seen below) (*see Dielectrics page).
Holding the two spheres apart is a moulded insulating neck-frame (again smooth-curved) that also holds, with insulating arms, a rotating glass/quartz wheel which is smooth curved so as not to provide any current path to leak away charges (see note 7).
The arm and wheel of each of the four bi-pole sphere-sets locates the whole central assembly within the toroid and the wheels allow it to turn along the inner concave wall so that the sphere-sets can be rotated about a vertical axis on an even plane.
Because the inner assembly of the base-disc and four sphere-sets, and its relationship to the inner concave-curved center of the toroid, can be likened to the plates and dielectrics of a capacitor, it can be seen that the electric charges distributed around it respond wholely to the movement of charges accumulated in, and around the outside perimeter of, the toroid.
In fact, the whole craft behaves, moreover, as a multi-sectioned capacitor with multiple oppositely-charged interfaces (see fig.9 electronic circuit); whereupon, when a charge is increased or decreased at any one section all other sections will correspondingly undergo charge increases and decreases through the various interfaces. It is, by definition of its action, an accumulator reactor.
Ufo structure pays special attention to shapes; in that sharp edges move electric energy whilst curved shapes and more especially smooth-surfaced spheres store electric energy. Charge density being inversely proportional to radius of curvature. There is very little about a ufo that is 'for show' or superfluous and it seems that every curve every edge has a special function (see fig.10).
The four large lower spheres accumulate charge from the pointed inner bottom edge of the charging toroid, while the top small spheres attract to their surfaces electric charge from the pointed inner top edge of the toroid, although this effect is more enhanced as the central sphere assembly actually rotates, as explained below.
The large spheres are used to feed electric energy into the small spheres. For, as in electrostatics if two spheres, one large and one small, are inter-connected by a conductive link (thin wire) or even a semi-conductor so that both spheres are at the same potential, then the intensity of charge on the small sphere will be much greater than that of the large sphere (ie density is inversely proportional to radius of curvature), and that if the larger sphere were negatively charged then the outer (upper) curve of the small sphere would correspondingly be negative, while the inner (lower) curve of the small sphere will be positive (or rather - less negative). These small-and-large-sphere sets follow the same principle, and it is for the same reason that the small spheres inside these ufos have been seen to glow intensely bright with energy. Another beauty of these configurations, particularly with the use of quartz, is that they don't conduct their charges away - they accumulate it - and so there will always be an attractive force exerted between the diffuse charges of the toroid and these spheres (see note 8).
With this established electrical relationship in mind the small-large sphere assemblies can more conveniently be termed bi-poles or bi-polar sphere-sets, simply to distinguish them as having different electrical configurations between top and bottom (as will be explained further below, neither sphere will be predominantly negatively or predominantly positively polarized).
That these dielectric spheres are said to pulsate with light, of all colours of the rainbow, is indicative of the electrical energy of the atoms and molecules from the surrounding air being pummelled and stressed, to the point where electrons as they get thrown out of their normal energy orbits and jump in and out of higher bands exhibit all sorts of changes. This throwing off of coloured photons is only the visual effect of extreme ‘Fermi level’ energy-exchanges of when electrons are accelerated or decelerated. The higher the colour up the spectrum (ie blue-white) the more energy exchange that is being exhibited. A ufo will therefore glow red or orange at "low revs’ and progress through yellow, green and blue "through the gears’, to be "flat out’ pulsating a bright-white light – and it will cruise with a bluish-white haze around it (see note 9) (see Witnessed page) (see Explosion Almost page).
By remarkable ingenuity the locating wheels rotate through an area of the inner wall of the toroid (ie the mid-section of the concave curve) which, electrostatically, has very little accumulation of charge anyway because of it's hollow curvature, and which corresponds to the area of neutralisation of charge in the center of a fluid flow by Lorentz Forces.
The base disc, as well as holding the four bi-poles, has to impede and constrict the lower magnetic field of the toroid, so as to direct the flux lines through, or mainly through, its central hole. This then, would not be made of the same construction as the toroid shell, and would be made of a non-magnetic metal such as an aluminium alloy – and perhaps even of the exotic magnesium/bismuth layered combination found in the remnants of one of the downed Roswell ufo's (for some excellent investigative research on this material see "Glimpses of Other Realities Volume 2" by Linda Moulton Howe pp11). Interestingly, bismuth does have the sort of qualities needed as it does exhibit what is called "lag current’ when pulsed currents are applied to it at very low frequencies and in a strong magnetic field (see note 10); indicating that it has capacitance. Bismuth also has a high atomic mass, and of course a Hall effect resistance or diamagnetism. Either way, a non-magnetic material while not able to prevent all the magnetic flux lines from penetrating through it, will convert some of the flux to a rotating electric field (ie eddy currents *) over it's surfaces (see figs.11 & 4), which will supplement the action of other charged particles spinning around the large lower spheres by other interactions, and these rotations will coalesce into a flux-constricting force. The base disc metal could also be laminated on its outside with insulating material (*see note 11).
Several factors compound to ensure that a large amount of polarized air is sucked (see fig.12) into the central concave chamber. As mentioned above, when the toroid's magnetic field is moving some of its flux lines, particularly the outer ones, will come into contact with the circular under-face of the upper radial planar (see figs.13 & 14 & 15) and will transfer their energies to that surface metal and induce electric currents in and around that non-magnetic material. This induction will react with the "diffuse layer’ charges from the top flat surface of the toroid, and while also reacting to the radial non-uniform magnetic field (perpendicular to it) will move in a mostly rotational direction, toward the area of the highest magnetic flux density – in the center. And with the electrical and aerodynamic relationship between the outer duct (through which fresh air is sucked and ionized with positive charge), and the base disc area which is negatively charged, there will be a drawing inward, towards the center, of the heavier positive air ions (by electrophoresis)(see Non-uniform Electric Fields page) and neutral air ions (by dielectrophoresis); and a generally curving of those motions as they react electrically to the converging magnetic field lines - that will have also induced a "spinning axle’ of lighter-mass electrons (also ionized from the air) at the center – to which the positively charged air will be drawn. And finally, by the laws of induction, when the conducting fluid is rotated around the toroid a circulating electric fluid will be induced in direct response to it, at its center in the axial plane, as a result of the interaction between the non-uniformity of magnetic flux lines generated by the original fluid and the 'magneto-phoretic' movement of the charged particles of its diffuse layers and the ionized air sucked in through the circumferential duct – and that the intensity of the induced fluid current will be significantly greater in response to the higher flux density in the center...
The result is a very intense revolving mass of air and charged particles, which is all the while sucking in more of the same tangentially (see fig.16) from the atmosphere outside; and as it is centralized about the center-hole so it creates its own magnetic field lines, which extend downward through the center-hole, out the bottom of the craft, and after panning out and up through the air, then return inward into the circumferential duct area, converging along the radial guide and squeeze down through the circulating negative charge to force their way back through the confines of the central hole.
As will be seen below, this revolving cyclonetic field, or vortex (see Vortex page), will be further constricted and its power further amplified by additional electrical fields still yet to be set in motion around it, within the central chamber.
But already, the congestion of magnetic flux lines and electric field lines, and the continual inflow of polarized and ionized air and particles – all of which are being drawn into this central chamber area is quite remarkable.
It will be noted that, with all these energies pouring into the central chamber there are only two ways out:
Central to the action of a vortex, or cyclonetic field, is its ability to create a low pressure suction area. This it does by compacting its fluid into a much smaller volume than is 'normal' (see Vortex page). If its fluid (which in this case is air) takes up a certain volume of space and a vortex revolves that mass into a space 1000 times smaller then air from further away will be drawn in to fill up that emptied space – hence the vacuum. Mostly a vortex is just a turning funnel which spurts out the bottom the densified air (or fluid) which upon "escaping’ normalizes again to a larger volume – and, in the case of air, with a higher pressure. So, below the center of a craft like this is created a high pressure zone – just like under a conventional aircraft's wing.
Further, a vortex has a centripital action, or convergence, where the densation and possibly pressure ionization occurs, as the particles of the fluid are compressed together in an ever-more confining space. Densation in a vortex, if powerful enough, can alter the very balance of atomic structuring, to affect a compression of the interatomic spacing that intrinsically gives order to electron shells and energy bands. Densation is one of the very few ways of calling up the power of repulsion – which on an atomic level – is the most powerful force in the universe (see note 12).
A Vortex also performs a centrifugal action that separates very efficiently the electric charges of the atoms and molecules of its revolving fluid, be it air or liquid; the heavier particles (mainly positive) are left to slowly rotate around the mouth of the vortex while the thirty-thousand-times more agile negative electrons are whisked down the ever-constricting throat at infinite speed to establish a substantial potential difference between top and bottom (or outer and inner, respectively). As in a "black hole’ vortex while all and sundry is being swallowed down into ever-smaller ‘quanta’ both positive and neutral particles are actually being forced out of the mouth into the space around them.
Rotation of the central sphere assembly greatly increases the accumulation of charges on the top and bottom spheres; as the spheres turn through the toroid's upper and lower non-uniform magnetic fields a potential difference is set up on each sphere's surface charges between those on the center-facing curve and those on the outward-facing curve (see fig.17); this electrical potential difference, or Foucault Current, is created when a conductor is moved through a non-uniform magnetic field that has a stronger flux density on one side of the volume than the other.
As a result of the Foucault differential on the top spheres the inside (center-facing) curve would have a positive charge-difference and the outer a more negative potential. Complimentary to this arrangement is the charging process of the vortex, for when the central vortex is formed and it's outer mouth-edge's highly positive charge links with the inner center-facing sides of the top spheres an opposite potential (negative) will be induced on their outer sides as they rotate.
Now the electric field of positive ions that have been gathering on the top flat surface of the toroid becomes attracted to the negative charge on the top spheres as they rotate, each sphere pulling a division of that positive field across the air gap (with the help of the streaming action of the toroid's top inner sharp edge)(see figs.18 & 19 & 20), and in the course of its rotation stretches its division like an elastic sheet. The four stretching sheets then are forced to coil around the outside perimeter of the central vortex (because its positive charge will repulse them), and additionally, while still being pulled electrically by each one of the top spheres, will also be repulsed from each other stretching sheet to ensure that they tighten around eachother into four separate "cycloconstrictive’ coils (see figs.21 & 22) (see note 13).
Such are the effects of the polarizing mechanisms of the vortex, in combination with the Foucault differential charging that the top and out-facing curves of the small spheres will possess the highest intensity of negative charge, while these bipoles are rotating, particularly if some sort of electrostatic link is made with the large lower spheres so that they both obtain the same voltage pressure (see fig.8) (see note 14a).
Outside and below the craft the polarized electric charges that have been accumulating in the two concentric 'donut rings' beneath the craft are primed and ready to conduct across the insulating air gap between them (the still air normally has a breakdown field strength of 3 x 106 Volts/metre), to form an electromagnetic wave that would radiate into the air below – but they cannot conduct because of the strength of the dual magnetic fields from the toroid, which are keeping the two charges apart and, in fact, which are spinning both these electric fields around the outside shell of the toroid in the same direction (and forming a 'energy shell' on the boundary surface around the craft's shell - see note 14b).
The energy release mechanisms occur when, as the cycloconstrictive fields wind around the center they get pulled into a compressive "wedge’ between the other coiling fields and the central vortex (see fig.23), all of which are positively charged (these coiling fields are then further tightened, by interaction with the radial magnetic field, which will tend to drive the positive charges even further round the center in an anticlockwise rotation - and any negative charges clockwise toward the outside). The compression results in repulsion – and just like a tightly coiled clockwork spring when its link suddenly snaps – the fields break loose and recoil in the reverse direction (see fig.24).
Obviously, all this is happening very rapidly and repeating itself in a fraction of a second. The large amounts of stored-up energy within each of the four cycloconstrictive fields of ionized particles now create a reverse-electromotive-force (back-emf against the toroid's magnetic field) as the electric fields traverse the radial planar wave guide and radiate out through the circumferential duct.
But with the internal REVERSAL and change in electric pressures, indeed, the change of polarities, between inside center and circumferential duct the 'plasma' of ionized atoms and molecules are then further accelerated outward because the 'electrodes' that make up the planar wave guide have become OPPOSITELY CHARGED and so their convergent force, as mentioned above, is now divergent throughout the radial planar wave guide.
By capacitive coupling and the reverse-electromotive-force the reversal of polarity in the diffuse layers around the toroid (both inside the ship and below outside) causes the toroid's internal charges to reverse and the toroid's magnetic field to momentarily collapse and reverse. Because of the capacitances and inductances in this electric circuit the toroid will continue to reverse and collapse, to oscillate, in concert with the rest of the electrical reactions in the accumulator reactor - just as would a 'tuned circuit' (see note 15).
In fact, the radial planar guide, is exactly like a waveguide for a fairly specific range of wavelengths, because it has two planar electrodes (about 12 cm apart) with an alternating potential difference between them, and a radial magnetic field moving parallel to the two planar surfaces, so that the accompanying electric field would pass through the waveguide perpendicular to the magnetic field and perpendicular to the top and bottom conductors (see fig.25). The whole structure would transform the 'plasma' into a transverse, ever-expanding ring of energy - an electromagnetic wave of energy.
The beauty of this system is that although the initial charges are generated by the toroid, strictly speaking they never actually leave the craft – because the charges propagated in the outgoing electromagnetic wave are INDUCED charges taken from the surrounding air. It doesn't expel its own energy - it expels the diffuse layers...
Electromagnetic Propulsive Forces
(see fig.26)(see note 16) (see UFO Plasma Engine page). One possibility is that the whole seething mass of plasma expands out of the craft at almost the speed of light and then reacts to the magnetic field 'frozen' inside it by vibrating in a highly energized kinetic state. This effect would be similar to the propagation of an electromagnetic wave but while the electric field and the magnetic field frozen inside the plasma resonate, the continually changing magnetic field is creating an ever-expanding electric current inside the plasma. And while this interaction is taking place a third, vector force, is producing an expanding 'force wave' of energy into the outside air, thereby completely transforming the electromagnetic energy into kinetic propulsive energy - thereby providing to the ufo (see animation 'ufo thrust').
Radio Wave Propulsive Forces
Another possible source of electric power propulsion comes from propagating the energy as radio-frequency micro-waves through it's planar waveguides which are configured in the millimeter frequency range... especially as UFOs have been detected radiating a microwave frequency energy field (see Microwave Propulsion page).